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Building and fire safety glossary

Important building and fire safety terms and their definitions

The following are a list of terms that you will often hear when discussing fire safety and what they mean:


ACM, or Aluminimum Composite Material, is a type of cladding used on buildings and was the type of cladding used on Grenfell Tower.

ACM consists of two thin aluminium sheets surrounding a lightweight core material such as polyethylene or Polyurethane.

Since the tragic fire at Grenfell Government have said that ACM must be removed from buildings and have provided funding for this to be done. L&Q have removed the ACM from our buildings.

Advice Note 14

 Advice note 14 (AN14) was one of a series of 22 Government building safety advice notes issued following the Grenfell tragedy. It was published in December 2018 and stated that all materials used in the construction of the external walls of high-rise buildings should be of limited combustibility (or have passed certain safety tests) and have been installed and maintained correctly.

In 2019, mortgage lenders and valuers began asking people who applied for mortgages on properties in some apartment blocks to provide independent certification that the building met the requirements of AN14. These requirements were not in place when the blocks were built, so in most cases, building owners now have to go back and undertake complex intrusive inspections (which involve opening up multiple walls to check the materials they are made of), carry out safety tests, and in many cases complete remedial works before they can prove that a building complies with the note.

In January 2020 AN14 was replaced by Government’s Advice for Building Owners of Multi-storey, Multi-occupied Residential Buildings. This document is commonly referred to as the ‘Consolidated Advice Note’ and replaced the existing 22 advice notes, including AN14 (see also ‘Building safety advice’ and ‘Consolidated advice note’ in this guide).

Building safety advice

When we refer to the government’s current building safety advice or guidelines we are referring to their Advice for Building Owners of Multi-storey, Multi-occupied Residential Buildings (also see ‘Consolidated advice note’ below), published on 20 January 2020, and the subsequent Government Update on Building Safety issued on 2 April 2020.

Neither of these publications are law, but they reflect the requirements that may become law when the Fire Safety Bill is passed later this year. Because of the importance of keeping our residents safe, and the need to help leaseholders sell, staircase or remortgage their homes most building owners are acting on these requirements now.

Building Safety Bill

 The Building Safety Bill, which seeks to implement the requirements of Dame Judith Hackitt’s Building a Safer Future report will set out the building safety requirements that will be overseen by the new Building Safety Regulator (BSR).

The Bill will include requirements such as the need for building owners to appoint an “accountable person” who will be the named contact for building safety for buildings covered by the Bill. It will also make it law for building owners to register their buildings with the BSR and submit safety information and resident engagement strategies for these.

It has not yet been confirmed what type of buildings the Building Safety Act will apply to, however it is currently expected to apply to taller buildings only (those over 18 metres in height or more than six storeys).

The Bill is expected to become law by 2022 with its requirements starting to be implemented by early 2023. Find out more information about the draft Building Safety Bill.

Building Safety Fund

The Building Safety Fund is a Government fund, designed to cover some of the costs of replacing cladding. Building Owners, such as L&Q, can apply for this fund.

There have to date been three funds made available by Government. The first two were for the removal of ACM high rise buildings (with of the two funds only available to private building owners). The current fund of £1bn is for the removal of non-ACM cladding from high rise buildings, though the industry believes the cost of the work will far exceed that amount.

The fund will not cover any safety issue other than the replacement of cladding, for example: the incorrect installation of cavity barriers (barriers used to restrict the movement of fire and smoke within a building) and several criteria need to be met for an application to be submitted.

Building safety inspection

A Building Safety inspection will result in a fire engineer, or Chartered Building Surveyor’s, report which confirms whether or not your building meets the new building safety guidelines, or will tell us what works we need to do if it doesn’t.

You may also hear these inspections referred to as ‘consolidated advice note inspections’. These inspections are different to the EWS1 form, which only exists to provide a fire safety rating for mortgage providers that helps them decide whether to lend or not.

Building Safety Programme

The Building Safety Programme is L&Q's plan to inspect our buildings and make sure that they meet current building safety guidelines.

This programme will involve investigations into the materials used in the construction of our buildings, and the delivery of remedial works where needed to make sure our homes are safe. Once these are complete, or if no works are needed, an EWS1 form can then be provided.

Consolidated Advice Notice

Consolidated advice note is another term for Government’s Advice for Building Owners of Multi-storey, Multi-occupied Residential Buildings published on 20 January 2020. It is also known as the consolidated advice note as it brings together 22 previous advice notes into one document.

EWS1 Form

The EWS1 form was developed by the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) to help prove to mortgage lenders that a property meets the latest building safety guidelines.

The form rates the fire safety of a building based on the likelihood of improvement works being required. Find out more information about the EWS1 process.

An EWS1 form is not on its own a guarantee of safety, which is why the Building Safety Programme inspection is also required. Unfortunately there is a national shortage of qualified people able to undertake these inspections nationally (this was confirmed by Government in July 2020). L&Q is working with our sector partners to lobby government to improve this system.

Fire Safety Bill

This is a proposal to make changes to existing Fire Safety law, the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005, and to enable the government to implement other fire safety improvements which will include the recommendations made within the phase one report of the Grenfell Tower Inquiry.

The changes will also bring the current building safety advice, which are guidelines only, into law. The Bill applies to any building which houses two or more separate homes and has ‘common parts’ (for example a shared entrance hall), regardless of height. The Fire Safety Bill will apply to approximately 7,500 L&Q homes.

The Fire Safety Bill is expected to become law before the end of 2020. Find out more information about the Fire Safety Bill.


The freeholder is the building owner, who in most cases is responsible for inspecting the building and completing any remedial works to ensure that it meetings building safety guidelines.

For most L&Q Homes the responsible freeholder is L&Q, however in some of our blocks we are only the managing agent or the head leaseholder, and another organisation is the responsible freeholder.


HPL, or High Pressure Laminate, is another type of cladding used on many buildings. HPL is only unsafe when used in combination with specific types of insulation, so it does not need to be removed in all cases.

L&Q’s inspection programme will prioritise buildings that have significant amounts of HPL cladding.


A leaseholder is someone who has a lease from the freeholder/head leaseholder, allowing them to occupy the home for a set number of years. Typically this is for one of multiple properties in a building owned by a freeholder. In an L&Q building leaseholders may own all or part of their lease (as a shared owner).

Waking Watch

Waking watch refers to fire marshals who are often put in place to help prevent and detect fires and to raise the alarm to both residents and the Fire and Rescue Services in the event of a fire.

They will then coordinate the evacuation until they hand over to the Fire and Rescue Services.

A waking watch consists of regular patrols of a building, throughout the day or night to ensure the safety of residents. In future, instead of putting a waking watch in place L&Q will install a new communal fire detection and alarm system instead. This is more effective than waking watch because the system is able to detect the early warning signs of a fire anywhere in the building much earlier than a physical patrol.

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